The Basics of the Constitutional Order
The Republic of Abkhazia (Apsny) shall be a sovereign democratic state based on law, which has historically become firmly established by the right of nation to self-determination. The Republic of Abkhazia and Apsny shall be equivalent names.
The sovereignty of the people shall be the basis for the State authority in the Republic of Abkhazia. The sovereignty bearer and sole source of authority in the Republic of Abkhazia shall be its people, i.e., the citizens of the Republic of Abkhazia. The people shall exercise their authority directly or through their representatives.
The Republic of Abkhazia as a subject of international law shall enter treaty relationship with other states. The procedure for concluding, publishing, ratifying and denouncing international treaties shall be specified by law.
The Republic of Abkhazia consists of the historical provinces of Sadz, Bzyb, Guma, Dal-Tsabal, Abjua, Samyrakan, which are the present day Gagrsky, Gudautsky, Sukhumsky, Gulripshsky, Ochamchirsky, Tkuarchalsky and Galsky districts within which the cities of Gagra, Guaduta, Novi Afon, Sukhum, Ochamchira, Tkuarchal, and Gal are located. The territory of the Republic of Abkhazia is indivisible, inviolable and inalienable.
Land and other natural resources shall be property of the people and shall be used and protected in the Republic of Abkhazia as a basis of life and activities of its citizens. The issues of ownership, use and disposal of natural resources shall be governed by the laws of the Republic of Abkhazia.
The official language of the Republic of Abkhazia shall be the Abkhazian language. The Russian language, equally with the Abkhazian language, shall be recognized as a language of State and other institutions. The State shall guarantee the right to freely use the mother language for all the ethnic groups residing in Abkhazia.
The State authority shall be exercised in the Republic of Abkhazia on the basis of a division into legislative, executive and judicial power. The legislative, executive and judicial powers shall be independent of each other.
Local self-government shall be recognized in the Republic of Abkhazia, which shall be independent within its authority. Local self-government institutions shall not be part of the State bodies.
This constitution shall have a superior legal force. The laws and other legal acts adopted in the Republic of Abkhazia shall comply with the Constitution.
The Republic of Abkhazia shall have its own symbols, i.e., a national flag, a National Emblem, and a national anthem, the description of which shall be established by constitutional laws. The capital of the Republic of Abkhazia shall be the city of Sukhum (Aqua).